Is Super Slow really more effective?
Westcott, WL et.al.
Effects of regular and slow speed resistance training on muscle strength
Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 41: 154-158,2001.
- Dr. Wescott, director of strength training for the YMCA, conducted
a study of male and female subjects between 25 and 82 years of age.
Over a 10-week period subjects in the SS group showed a 59% increase
in overall strength compared to a 39% increase with traditional rep
2. Is one set of exercise
really enough? Carpinelli, R.N. and R.M. Otto. Strength Training:
single versus multiple sets. Sports Medicine 26(2):73-84,1998.
- Many exercise authorities claim that single set training is insufficient,
however, the literature does not support this. This study out of Adelphi
University surveyed all of the known literature that compared single
set versus multiple set resistance training. Forty-five (45) studies
showed that multiple sets resulted in NO increase in results compared
to single-set training, while only 2 studies showed a marginal improvement
with multiple sets. Many years ago this Arthur Jones comment resonated
with me, "I don't care how much exercise you can stand; I want
to know how little you need."
3. Is once a week really enough to work out? Graves JE,
et.al. Effect of reduced training frequency on muscular strength.
International Journal of Sports Medicine 9(5):316-319, 1988. AIso -
et. al. Effects of training frequency on strength maintenance in pubescent
baseball players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 10(1):8-14,
- Subjects trained for 10-18 weeks at a higher frequency and then decreased
frequency for 12 weeks. Subjects who trained 3X/week decreased to 2X/week
and subjects who trained 2x/week decreased to IX/week Reduction in training
frequency produced improved rates of strength gain.
4. Is the response to physical trainini really genetic?
Thibault MC, et.al. Inheritance of human muscle enzyme adaptation
to isokinetic strength training. Human Heredity 1986;36(6):341-7.
- This study subjected five sets of identical twins to a 10-week strength-training
program. Biochemical markers of strength were monitored. There was a
wide range of response between different twin sets, but responses of
the identical twin sets were -- get this -- identical.
5. Is strength training useful for cardiac patients?
Verill, D. et.al. Resistive exercise training in cardiac patients.
Recommendations. Sports Medicine 1992 Mar 13(3):171-93.
- This position paper states "...Circuit weight training has been
recommended and has been reported to improve strength, lean body mass,
self-efficacy, and may decrease risk factors for coronary artery disease.
There appears to be considerable benefit and minimal risk of resistive
exercise training for patients with cardiovascular impairment. This
mode of exercise may allow patients to perform daily strength tasks
safely, more efficiently, and with greater self confidence."
Sparling PB, et.al. Strength
training in a cardiac rehabilitation program: a six-month follow-up.
Arch Phys Med Rehab 1990 Feb; 71(2):148-152.
- This study looked at 16 middle aged men with history of myocardial
infarction, coronary bypass, ventricular arrhythmias, angioplasty or
other cardiac conditions. Blood pressure data revealed no change in
mean systolic or diastolic blood pressure during actual training. "In
no instance did circuit training appear to elevate a patient's BP above
clinically acceptable levels for controlled hypertension."
Parker, ND et.al. Effects
of strength training on cardiovascular responses during a submaximal walk
and weight-loaded walking test in older females. J. Cardiopulm Rehab
1996 Jan-Feb; 16(1):56-62.
- After 16 weeks of weight training women aged 60-77 showed reduced
heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and rate pressure product while
treadmill walking with and without a weight load of 40% bodyweight.
Their conclusion: strength training reduces cardiovascular stress during
daily tasks in healthy older women.
6. Is strength training useful for arthritis/rheumatoid patients?
RaIl, LC et.al. The effect of progressive resistance training in rheumatoid
arthritis. Increased strength without changes in energy balance or body
composition. Arthritis Rheum 1996 Mar;39(3): 415-26.
- "High intensity strength training is feasible and safe in selected
patients with well-controlled RA and leads to significant improvements
in strength, pain, and fatigue without exacerbating disease activity
or joint pain."
Is strength training an acceptable form of exercise for the elderly?
Evans, WJ. Reversing sarcopenia: how weight training can build strength
and vitality. Geriatrics 1996 May: 51(5):46-7,51-3.
- "Progressive resistance exercise can produce substantial increases
in strength and muscle size, even in the oldest old. For many older
patients, resistance training represents the safest, least expensive
means to lose body fat, decrease blood pressure, improve glucose tolerance,
and maintain long-term independence."
Meuleman, JR et.al. Exercise
training in the debilitated aged; strength and functional outcomes.
Arch Phys Med Rehab 2000 Mar;81(3):312-318.
- Fifty-eight (58) elderly subjects with at least one impairment in
activities of daily life completed an 8-week strength training program.
Strength increased an average of 32.8% with the most debilitated showing
the greatest improvement. "This group of debilitated elderly patients
effectively performed resistance training and increased their strength,
with the most impaired gaining the most function. Few in the group could
effectively perform endurance training."
Fielding, RA. Effects of
exercise training in the elderly impact of progressive-resistance training
on skeletal muscle and whole-body protein metabolism. Proc Nutr Soc
- This review article states, "The overwhelming evidence presented
In the present review suggests that loss of muscle strength and function
observed with advancing age is reversible even in the frail elderly.
Exercise programmes designed to improve muscle strength are recommended
for older individuals as an effective countenneasure to the sarcopenia
of old age."
Ades PA, et.al. Weight
training improves walking endurance in healthy elderly persons. Ann
Intern Med 1996 Mar 15; 124(6):568-72.
- Twenty-four (24) subjects 65-79 years old underwent a 3-month weight
training program. Participants increased their walking endurance by
38%. There was no change in peak aerobic capacity to account for the
improvement. "Resistance training for 3 months improves both leg
strength and walking endurance in healthy, community dwelling elderly
persons. This finding is relevant to older persons at risk for disability,
because walking endurance and leg strength are important components
of physical functioning."
8. Will strength training help prevent or reverse osteoporosis? Kerr, D et al. Exercise effects on bone mass in postmenopausal
women are site-specific and load-dependent. J. Bone Miner Res 1996
- Fifty-six (56) subjects were randomized to either heavy or light
resistance training. Only resistance training that involved heavier
loads increased bone mineral density.
9. If I drop out of
training for a long time, is there any point in coming back?
Staron, RS et.al. Strength and skeletal muscle adaptations in heavy-resistance
-trained women after detraining and retraining. J Appl Physioll991
- Subjects were trained for 20 weeks, followed by 30 weeks of detraining,
followed by 6 weeks of retraining. During retraining women quickly gained
back to a level attained after their initial 20 weeks.